Review of high temperature materials
High-temperature materials play a significant role in sustainable engineering across various industries and applications. Sustainable engineering aims to design, develop, and implement solutions that minimize environmental impact, enhance resource efficiency, and promote long-term sustainability. The availability of substances that can be used efficiently at high temperatures allows pushing the limits of possible measurable demands. These substances include ceramics, polymers and metals. It is used in elevated temperature materials, aircraft and space structures, and space exploration. In this study, high temperature metals are classified including superalloys, platinum and refractory metals, refractory metals such as W, Nb, Mo, Ta. Also, ceramic materials are high temperature materials. Ceramics are criticized to use in elevated temperature due to their high hardness, extraordinary strength in compression, excellent thermal stability, short-term thermal extension and tremendously great melting temperature. Ceramics that encounter these standards are carbides and borides of Zr, Nb, Ta, Ti and Hf. In addition, steel, nickel and copper alloys used in aircraft engines, space shuttles and turbine blades from aerospace materials were investigated. In addition, powder metallurgy and sintering techniques, which are the most widely used production methods of high temperature materials, are emphasized. In this study, important characterization techniques for analyzing some sample surface and subsurface properties are reviewed. Again, in this study, the use of AES, XPS, SSIMS and LEED methods for the chemical examination of surfaces is discussed. Optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy is used for pictorial inspection of inspection specimens and structures, obtaining data on surface, shape, colors, and numerous additional physical properties. Here, AFM, SEM, TEM, EDX, FIB and EMP methods are discussed. Among the material analysis devices, XRD, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, low energy electron diffraction, neutron diffraction and electron microprobe devices were examined.
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