The optimal design of school desks depending on the height and weight of students


  • Fikret Veljovic University of Sarajevo
  • Avdo Voloder University of Sarajevo
  • Senad Burak University of Sarajevo
  • Benjamin Kulovac University of Sarajevo
  • Reuf Karabeg University of Sarajevo



Background: The subject of this research is the creation of an optimal school bench design with the aim of determining the most favorable posture of students while sitting, taking into account the relevant ergonometric and biomechanical characteristics of the human body. For the proposed model of the school bench which allows adjusting the different slopes of its surface, the corresponding computer model of the student and the table was first created, and then biomechanical and RULA analysis was performed in order to determine the maximum load in the lumbar part. Next, for each test subject of given weight, it was necessary to determine the amount of maximum load in lumbar zone L3/L4 for different slope angles and to determine the critical angles at which the maximum permissible load of 3400 N is reached.

Methods: The analysis is performed on a total of 5 subjects of the same height (180 cm) and various weights (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 kg). The task is to determine at which weight and at what angle of the workbench with standard height will not exceed the permissible loads of the spine, specifically referring to the L4/L5 vertebrae whose stresses should not exceed 3400 N. The CATIA software package (Dassault Systèmes, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) is used for the analysis. By knowing the anthropometric and work environment data with ergonomic design and analysis, the following analyzes were made: biomechanical analysis, rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) and carry analysis (an option from CATIA software).

Results: The proposed school bench design allows for flexible adjustments to its worktop, that is, changing its tilt. This allows students of different body masses to have an optimal position at work that does not compromise their maximum permissible load in the L4/L5 spinal column (3400N).

Conclusions: The proposed ergonomic design of the desk will result in students being adequately positioned during their activities at school with the minimal risk of permanent deviations and other health problems.




How to Cite

F. Veljovic, A. Voloder, S. Burak, B. Kulovac, and R. Karabeg, “The optimal design of school desks depending on the height and weight of students”, Heritage and Sustainable Development, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 46–51, Jun. 2020.